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1221 MARKET STREET, 

EXTRaXTS 



FROiM A PAMPHLET ENTITLED 



Earth Closets 



AND 



EARTH SEWAGE. 



BY 



GEORGE E. WARING, 

{Of Ogden Farm). 







ILLUSTRATED. 



1 



PI II SHED BY THE TRIBUNE ASSOCIATION, NEW YORK 



(PRICE FIFTY CENTS.) 



PRE NT ED BY 



EARTH CLOSET COMPANY, 

HARTFORD, CONN. 






H 



EARTH-CLOSET COMPAN 





LOCAL OFFICES. 



Boston 19 Doane Street J. Gardiner White. 

New York .696 Broadway, (cor. Fourth Street) H. P. Gray, Jr. 

Philadelphia 5 i 3 Market Street E. R. Bowen. 

Baltimore 1 Holliday Street W. A. Bryant & Co. 

Washington i O Pennsylvania Avenue E. E veleth. 

New Orleans 2 Carondelet Street Dr. J, J. Castellanos, 

Memphis 2J3 Main Street H. T. Aborn. 

Chica S°- *°9 Dearborn Street James Waring. 

Ohio, Western Penn- 
sylvania, etc Massillon, Ohio John Hoskin 

AIbany 8a State Street C. H. Stroag. 



AGENCIES. 



Bangor, Maine— Dole Brothers. 
Newport, R. /.—Swinburne, Peckham & Co. 
West Winsted, Conn.— David W. Coe. 
New Haven, Conn.— Dry Earth Co., ,89 Cha- 
pel Street. 

Bridgeport, Conn.—T. B. Doolittle. 

So. Norway Conn.—F. H. Nash & Bro. 

Stamford, Conn.— J. L. Lockwood. 

P?ainfr!<LN. ?.-John T. Lee. 

Tena^y, N. y.-^Thos. C. Veal. 

Burlington, N. %—R. B. Carter. 

Potisville, P<r«*.— Bright & Co. 

Bradford, Penn.—F. A. Newell. 
Pittsburg, Penn.—E. J. Seibert. 

Greenville, Penn.— Packard & Co. 
Alexandria, Fa.— Green & Bro. 
Lexington, Fa.— Fuller & Sloan. 
Norfolk, Fa.-Thos. R, Gary & Co. 
Wheeling, W. Va.— Metcalf & Burt. 
Portsmouth, OAw-J hn McGinley. 
Indianapolis, Indiana— Amos F. Fay. 
Louisville, Ky.— Speed, Magens & Co. 
Nashville, Tenn.— Money & Shaifer. 
Morris, Illinois.— E. Sanford. 
Milwaukee, Wis.-Geo. B. Kellogg & Co., „ s 
Wisconsin Street 

Minneapolis, Minn.-Chzxles Darrow. 
Hot Springs, Ark.-Dr. O. B. Knode. 

Provident*, P. /.- W . C , TowQSendt ?Q ££ 

bosset Street. 



Burlington, Vt.—E. E. Ryer. 
i Lyndonville, Pif.— N. P. Lovering, Jr. 
Pitts/ield, Mass.—M. O. Hutchings & Co. 
River Head, N. F.-Charlcs Hallett. 
Yonkers, N. F,— C. F. Hanby. 

FishkiU Landing, N. F.-W. H. Van Wage- 
nen. 

Poughkeepsie, N. K-A. Cannon, Jr. 
>IZhinebeck, O^Wm, Carroll. / 
y^roy, N. F.-tartar^ F<^t. 
Schenectady, N. P.— Jacob De Forest. 

Cambridge, N. P.— Dr. T. C. Wallace. 
Potsdam, N, P.— Batchelder & Son. 
Binghamton, N. F.-L. L. Olmsted. 
Elmira, N. P.-Robinson's Furniture Rooms. 
Rochester, N. P.— Porter & Chapin. 
Staten Island, North Side, all of the land- 
ings. 

Vanderbilt Landing, Staten Island-J^^ 
R. Robinson. 

Walertown, N. P.— J. Felt 
Faribault, Minn.-S. H. J aques . 

Columbia, S. C— Alex. Y. Lee. 
Magnolia, £, Florida.-Dx. S. Rogers. 
York, Penn.— A. B. Farquhar. 
Battle Creek, ^VA.-John Butcher. 
Richmond, Va.-C. W. Harrison. 
Hillsdale, Mich.-}, W . Wlnsor & Son* 
Dubuque, Iowa-}ohn Hunter 
Omaha, Neb.-E. K.Abbott, 506,3th St. 



Uoo-;o 



The Earth System. 




T is barely two years since the first complete description of 
the Earth-Closet was published in America— in Judd's Agn- 
cultural Annual for 1868 — and not a year and a half since 
the first Commode was imported; yet it may already be said that the 
Earth-Closet has gained such a foot-hold that its universal adoption 
(ex t in houses in which there are water-closets supplied from public 
water-works) is certain. It has now reached the " important if true" 

The whole community is. ready to concede that, if the Dry 
Earth s tern will accomplish what is claimed for it, nothing can pre- 
vent its general adoption. It remains necessary only to prove that 
it will do this, which, with the facts at command, is an easy task. 

When my previous pamphlet* was written, I could adduce no evi- 
dence except that published by the English company in its advertising 
circular, and the single trial in my own house. I am now, fortu- 
nately upplied with the most conclusive testimony from various parts 
of this country, some of which is even stronger than anything from 
England or India. My own opportunities for observation and expe- 
rience have been excellent, and I am more than ever convinced that no 
better service can be rendered to the country than in extending among 
all classes of its people a knowledge of the inestimable advantages of 
the new system. I speak thus strongly, because I am sure aU thought- 

* Earth Closets: How to Make Them and How to Use Them, 



v 



i 



4 



ful persons will admit that the facts herein set forth are ample justifica- 
tion for any enthusiasm on the subject. 



Precisely what the Earth-Closet and its accessories, as now con- 
trived, accomplish is the following: 

i. A comfortable closet on any floor of the house, supplied with 
earth, and cleansed of its deposits without the intervention or know- 
ledge of any member of the household. 

2. A portable commode in any dressing-room, bedroom, or closet, 
the care of which is no more disagreeable than is that of an anthracite 



stove. 



4 

3. Appliances for the use of immovable invalids which entirely 
remove the distressing accompaniments of their care. 

4. The complete and effectual removal of all the liquid wastes of 
sleeping-rooms and kitchen. 

5. The utilizing of a manure worth (including kitchen and laundcy 
wastes) at least $10 per annum for each member of the family, old and 
young. 

6. The removal of the most fertile source of typhoid fever and 
dysentery, and the prevention of cholera infection. 

7. The complete suppression of the odors which, despite the com- 
fort and elegance of modern living, still hang about our cess-pools and 
privy- vaults, and attend the removal of their contents. 

I have excepted houses which are supplied with water by public 
works from those into which the Earth-Closet may be expected to find 
its way immediately ; but I am confident that the second, third, fifth, 
and sixth of the above specified advantages will, in due time, give the 
Dry Earth Commode at least an accessory place even in such houses ; 
and I believe that these advantages, together with the question of cost, 
will revolutionize the sewage question, and that public sewers will, in 
future, be restricted to the removal of liquid drainage only. 



t 



5 



♦ ####***** The 

water-closet has won its way to universal favor on the grounds of con- 
venience, comfort, and decency alone. These it secures ; and there is 
no luxury connected with modern living that is so highly prized by 
those who have once known its benefits. The water-closet is the chief 
tiung of which women living in the country envy their city cousins the 
possession. In country-houses, one of the first steps toward elegance is 
the erection of an expensive water-closet in the house, provided with a 
fon pump that is doomed to break both the back and the temper of 
the hired man; a tank and pipes which are pretty sure to be burst by 
f ^t every winter; the annual tax of the plumber's bill; and, worse 
than all, a receptacle in the garden known as a "cess-pool," which 
u ly has a private subterranean communication with the well from 
which drinking-water is Mken. The manure is, of course, lost; it is 
worse than ! L Too far below the surface to be of use to vegetation, 
it li< a I ring mass, sending its foul and poisonous gases back 
through the soil-pipe and kitchen-sink drain into the house, and devel- 
01 g in i putrid mentation the germs of typhoid fever and dysen- 
i y that any film of gravel in the lower soil may carry to the well or 
the spring. 

These drawbacks are of no account as affecting the popularity of 
the water-closet, for the simple reason that they do not present them- 
selves to the apprehension of the public. Unknown evils are un- 
; i our best people have a comfortable way of ascribing 

to the inscrut; le d <ensations of a Divine Providence rather than to 
their own folly even such a disease as typhoid fever, oj hick no single 
case a cttrred i ivilized community without the direct intervention of 
h ni a The disease is always brought about by our own neglect ; 

and tti look for the hand of Providence not in its propagation, 

but rather in our miraculous escape from the traps which we ourselves 
have set. 

If, then, we are to look mainly to the inorTensiveness, accessibility, 
a omfort of the water-closet for its popularity, we shall recognize the 
fact that the Earth- Closet can never achieve success unless it offers the 



F/G. 3. 




APPARATUS FOR UPSTAIRS CLOSET, WITH VALVED PAlL 







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TOP TO OPEtV 



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C£li IN a 



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| CALVANLZCP //ION ^|*= 




APPARATUS FOR UP-STAIRS CLOSET, WITH VALVED PAIL 



8 

same advantages. It does this, and more. A properly constructed 
Earth-Closet may be kept in constant use in an occupied room. It is 
absolutely free from odor. There is an entire absence of the depress- 
ing, headachy effect that always accompanies the water-closet or night- 
chair. A water-closet could not be kept in constant use in a bedroom 
or sitting-room without injury to the health. An Earth-Closet can be 
so kept, and herein lies its great superiority simply a* a matter of con- 

venience. 

This fact being assumed, (and the testimonials contained in this 

volume establish it,) it becomes a simple question of cost and conve- 
nience in what part of the house the Closet shall be placed. Of 
course, for obvious reasons, its position must be a retired one ; but it 
has the great advantage that it need not be remote, and may be kept 
within that part of the house that is comfortably warmed. It is, of 
course, most desirable, as far as the ladies of the family are concerned, 
that the Closet should be on the second floor of the house, if only one 
is made. Ordinarily it will be best to build it in one of the outer walls, 
in order that its earth-shaft may be reached without entering the house. 
But sometimes this is impossible, and it becomes necessary to carry the 
soil-pipe directly through the first story, discharging into the cellar. 
These two plans are shown, the first in Figs, i and 2, and the second in 

Figs. 3, 4, 5' and 6 - 

For use in farm-houses or other establishments where the services 

of a man can be commanded occasionally, there is no objection to the 
arrangement shown in Figs. 3, 4,5>™ d $ The reservoir above the hop- 
per, which may be made 10 hold a supply of earth for one month or for six 
months, as may be desired, can be filled in a short time from I >a g in which 
the dry earth may be easily and neatly carried to them. The soil-pipe, 
which may be built of vitrified pipe, wood, brick, or an ither material, 
discharges into a bin in the cellar, from whi< h tl >sit may be 

readily removed, or where it may He until dry enough to sift for a 
second use.* 

* I have recently seen, in a cellar in New York, a series of large box g at the 

side of an Earth-Closet, m which the earth was ben % dried for rep< sat One- 

lot had been used six t.tnes, and it was traposstble, either by its odor or its appearance, to dis- 



9 



For towns, however, whether large or small, the convenience of 

earth supply and removal will probably make it necessary to adopt the 

plan shown in Figs, i and 2. In thickly settled communities, it will be 

necessary to have some regular system of earth supply and removal that 

will relieve indb ual householders not only of the labor and personal 

attention necessary, but even of all thought concerning it. There are 

various ways in which this can be done. None has been suggested to 

me which seems .re easily practicable than that proposed by Messrs. 

Ota , Vaux & Co. for the village of Riverside, near Chicago, which 

is thus described in the Evening Post: 

« Until the subject was taken in hand by Mr. Olmsted, it was at- 
tended * 1 certain drawbacks, such as the necessity for the house- 
« hoi give his personal attention to the supplying of dry earth and 

« the ving of deposits, and the possible difficulties with servants on 

M th< ibj< * t of attending to closets on the upper floors of the house^ 
«| By Mr. Olmsted's plan, the closets for the different stones are placed 
|« dii over each other, and they communicate with a vertical shaft, a 

11 few ire, outside of the house. This is the channel by which 

try trth hoisted up, and down which the deposits are dis- 

I , har I by tilting the trays under the seats on the different stones, an 
« operation which may be performed in a moment by any one. The 
"vertical shaft has a shallow vault at the bottom for receiving deposits, 

I rovided with a hoisting apparatus with a self-dumping arrange- 
« , by which the earth-reservoirs on the different floors may be sup- 

II plied by a j >erson operating from below. Of the details of the arrange- 
« ment for preventing the closets on the different floors from interfenng 
« with each other, it is only necessary to say that they seem simple and 

. ip lete. There is no door opening from any part of the house into 
vertical shaft ; the only access to it is by a door opening into aback 
|« yard. Phis door to be kept locked, and it. key will 1 le in the pocket 
|| of the public dustman, whose duty it is at stated intervals to make his 
« rounds, with his load of sa< tilled with dry earth, and his implements 
« for moving the contents of the vault. He first fills the different reser- 
« voirs, putting in much or little as may be required, but filling them full ; 

tineuish it from that which had not been used at all. The experimenter expressed his > beUef 
Sat he should be able to use it twelve times, after wbtch he could sell it for over $« .per 
" In tins room, where the closet was in use, and different samples of earth were m 
various stages of preparation, there was absolutely no offensive odor. 



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" then shovels out the moist earth below, locks the door, and goes on to 
" the next house. He asks no questions, and has no communication 
whatever with housekeeper or servants. His work is perfectly simple, 
" and is performed without need for the concurrence of any one inside 
" the house. As the deposit which he removes is no more offensive than 
"so much coal-ashes, he need not work stealthily by night, like a 
"scavenger, and his cart in its rounds will give no offence to the public." 

There is an organized Dry Earth Co. in New Haven, which is 
now performing service similar to that described above; and it has re- 
moved the only difficulty in the way of the introduction of the Earth 
System into that town. Similar arrangements are being carried into 
effect in several other places, and I believe that within a i'cw years the 
supply of dry earth for closet use will be as universal as is now the sup- 
ply of ice or coal. Wherever manure has even a moderate value, no 
charge should be made for renewing the earth, though of course it 
would be proper to charge for the first supply. 

Those who are introducing Earth-Closets into their houses in a 
systematic way will find it desirable to connect with it a housemaid's 
closet, from which floor-sweepings, ashes, etc., may be thrown directly 
into the earth-shaft, the arrangements for removing chamber-slops 
(described hereafter) being in the same room. 

Where it is not practicable to build closets ith a drop to the cel- 
lar or down an earth-shaft, but where it is yet desirable to have more 
than the capacity of a commode, a fixed closet with a movable tank 
index the seat may be used. Figs. 7, 8, and 9 represent the appear- 
ance and construction of a closet that I have had in con mt use dur- 
ing the past on in a close room adjoining n office. The reservoir 
and hop r will hold about three barrels of earth. This v. oiled on 
the 20th of May, 1 > 9 . The closet was used daily until the _>oth of 
August, when the supply of earth was exh id il nk was 

filled. The tank was then emptied into a 1. e box ii sam< room, 

and the reservoir was partly filled with fresh • rth. Late in 0ct*>ber 
this earth was exhausted, and it was found that that winch had 1 n 
taken out of the tank in August was dry enough to be u an. It 




FIG. 7.— CLOSET IN CORNER OF ROOM. 



was accordingly sifted and put into the hopper. There was no vestige 
of paper, except a little near the top of the mass, and in the whole there 
was not more than half a peck of solid fseces. All the rest had been 
completely disintegrated and absorbed by the earth. This small quan- 
tity, which probably had not decayed for want of moisture, had, when 
broken, the appearance and odor of rotten wood. This same lot of 
earth, having passed through the closet a second time, was, with its con- 
tents of excrement, removed from the tank into the box on the 24th of 
December, and it now has exactly the appearance and odor of any 
moist earth. 

Since the cool weather commenced in October, this room has re- 
mained entirely unventilated, save by the occasional opening of the 
door leading to the office; yet it has at no time had any other odor 
than it would have had had it contained only a cart-load of gardener's 
potting-earth. 

This Closet may be made larger or smaller, according to the space 
available for it or to the capacity required. With a vault large enough, 
its deposits might remain undisturbed for years, or, if necessary, they 
may be daily removed. Where there is only a small closet space avail- 
able, the Earth-Closet may be built like an ordinary commode, raised a 
foot higher to admit a larger box in place of the hod, and with its back 
carried up a foot or two above the top of the vibrating hopper. 

Figs. 10 and 11 represent a Closet with a movable tank on wheels, 
called a "Broadmoor Tank,- which is in common use in England. This 
arrangement is, of course, available for a closet in the house or wood- 
shed, or in an outer privy. 

All of these illustrations are mere suggestions for architects and 
builders. The plan may be varied to suit all circumstances and all 
tastes. The Closet may be built with oiled walnut, and highly finished, 
or it maybe made, like one that I know of, of rough hemlock boards, 
n the corner of an unfinished cellar. The apparatus should be so 
arranged as to work freely, and to surely deposit' its earth at the right 
point. All other conditions are unessential and may be changed & at 
pleasure. 



'5 



The foregoing directions are based on the assumption that the 

slight « <se of procuring the patented mechanical fixtures for the 

will not he an objection ; but there are thousands of poor women 

a invalid , the country who cannot afford even this, yet to whom it 

Uy d rable to avoid the- exposure that the absence of conve- 

,|. house makes necessary. Such conditions may be 

, y M l-y a plan ffl • h, though less convenient, is no less 

the i i- M ule's Closet. 

Any1 mv, at size, not 1. th.m eightee inches 

with a movable or hint I cover, with an Ottfina 

, , ; he'b water-tight, i joints should b. filled 

whU( pfceh. '11 inches of dry trth should 

, „ the bottol At i ide th I t bo 

, ,, ,!,:.„ He. oul-ashes, with a sa 1 tin scoop 

,; nough rtl, uld I thro I in' the 

,| A |l f earth is »»le I'M ll " "" 

n this I - is filled, -litems may be KID •' • d Wtl 

Ul .| , , t, ai I be kept in the good won. 1 

.„: . hltle otleiiee as the e or lh< It of d 

(,, • > r privi< . those * i>lcs of del Mid -raves of 

that disfigure Imosl every < intry home in Ai , a 

m tueht IsalK.vet: ills of cl at 

] I,, ve, doomed * pj * from off the •( tl T* fcjr 

)%< y k yard in New ¥Oril City was pro I 1 

I Uling ; bd ' ; { } U ' l 

tbly ther N I ity ( «i to Vt ifle I wenty 

itistol yw,ll 1 mi, Hyrare in 

in <lmrlu-<..uiury. Thai •: a on t! ore 



d comfoi will be c ed by all. 

I« ,cr..lly um : BfDOd r pemii us t ct ui n 

„i, five* • m m a of fc . 

has to lybeen rt ^ * 

t lh( L> but that which i rudu. ,i regale, fei 



i6 



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worse results — the aggravation of the difficulties of delicate females — . 
has attracted less attention than its importance deserves. It is umver- 
sally admitted that nothing is more injurious to health .than irregularity 
and the undue retention of the rejectamenta of the intestines. Sir 
James Eyre, the celebrated physician, slays : * 

" The bowels and the bladder, as receiving the ?tiost hurtful cxcrc- 
tions of our bodies, ought not only to be emptied when they crave 

" relief, but a wise man waits not for this ; and I would implore all of 

" either sex to remember through life that they ought to anticipate, 
whenever they may be able, the call to evacuate the intestinal canal. 
. . . The first point to be insisted on is a daily evacuation of the 
bowels, which can always be accomplished, the means at our com- 

" mand, dietetic or medicinal, being abundant, saidfro/n this dictum no 

" of peal whatever can be allowed" 

But it is not necessary to quote scientific authority to prove 
to any person of intelligence that in prompt and regular attention 
to this duty lies the cardinal secret of health. We have all been re- 
minded in our own persons th our hi 1th and efficiency, as \\< II as our 
jrfumess and good humor, depend on perfect regularity in this 
regard. There can be little question that the pr> ilitog female com- 
plaints are often induo . and always intensified, by disordi i oi th( 
di, ive o us. and the oppression in the lower i< th..i ni «t 

in this r < a Si 

Admitting the justness of this view, let us see what chance a .\o- 
man 1 ng country has to t ape the direst i thai "4eliq 

health *' has in ■■:•;• \ ic Liu The privy rhaps, at the 

boti oftJu rden. fiiiv i the hou appi d b) a walk. 

b 1 d 1 , which is always i t during th( unay 

! tl i hung by 'rubbery »1 \im . •. i an oil 

in g v ' juently \<, tin- public g. Jiouniti.M^.u 

i rifts I I the wa;, grautthe* i \n to i I n any 

Thel eitscif full). :<1, jfn .nii-d lull will, .. \ r foot 

' it A nj wh oused dui \vi.-;jJ r 

w it is ssibl- r i Ireadful w 

tie Stomach and >-.•-. Difhi ultic». tt 



*7 

exposure that such circumstances require. If the walk is exposed to a 
neighboring work-shop window, the visit will probably be put off unt 
dusk. In either case, no amount of reasoning will convince a woman 
that it is h< duty, for the sake of preventing troubles of which she is 
yet ignorant, to expose herself to the danger, the co . and t 

annoyance that regularity under such circumstam lies. 

I pass over now the barbarous fo ; i the stilling odor of the 

priv | vault. It ; i wily . i unavoidable evil that tlu have b p 
tolerated; but I ( .air i too -trongly urge attention to die point taken 

above, ami it on the fact that e\ consideration of huraani . and 
of the ivelfare i ily of our d families, but of th whole commu- 
nity i'-i nds a spi iy reform of this 

And this ts a ''woman's right,* 1 who juisil ) Is moi 

vit.il to! ' h Ith and happines han any that fh ed-to-bc-cov 

eted suffrage promises- her ; and she nay, with just iM^t th 

however much she may be i d OVi in th alanl matt- f 

employment and 'ting, mankind 1 no right to hold her longei in 

ubj< p il < ui . It is I dly more important that sh< 

have a hou •' ' ■ her Lthei that this in< itivc to 

a irr< y I f moved* 

It will hardly be bel I by my more (avih/cl i\ that, over 

more than half" fc] "the touted Stan en the 

every- way -m I it I hav Ltivelj 

unknown, and that 1 corn-field 1 t t are the only retreat 

p\ >vided, lule the ' rity farmers' hoi s, even the North, arc 
most ii quat I I. 

In view Of th< ;oing \ I m no apology t calling the 

atten f \ i tl to this important r, beli< ti t 

th« . wi ally conced th m r'rni 1 of < ind com- 

fort ma) iUi n 1 a m I int aits of I their i ie 

of 1 r il u, civQj they • i 

i • )iv ' t the wa m doset and the earth-* *ke 

» ihl Beinj; the parties most interested, it I th the 

the fte ry relief. 



i8 



COMMODES. 



The form of the Earth-Closet which first commends itself to en- 
quirers is the portable Commode, shown in Fig. 15. This is a chair, 
containing, in its thickened back, the vibrating hopper for holding the 
dry earth, and, under the seat, a hod of galvanized iron (resembling an 
ordinary coal-hod) for receiving the deposits. The apparatus for 
throwing the earth is precisely the same in all respects as that used 
in the large closets. I have had one of these commodes in constant 
use in my house for a year and a half. It usually stands in a room 
which connects two others that are constantly occupied. It has been 
used, during the whole period, three times a day on an average. The 
fact of its standing where it does has never prevented us from keeping 
the doors open into the other rooms whenever desirable. The room in 
which it is is used for other puq^oses, precisely as it would have been 
were the Commode not there ; and, in case of sickness, it is removed 
into the bedroom of the invalid, its contents being earned out only 
when the hod is filled. Under all circumstances it is as inoffensive 
and innocuous as any other piece of furniture. Keeping it in constant 
use, I have found it desirable to have two hods— using them alternate!) 
With this simple precaution, and the most ordinary < are B> prevent tb 
hod from becoming too full, I have found it to answer its purpo* ...ore 
perfectly than any water-closet I have ever seen. 

If I desired to give the strongest j ssibje proof of the entire su< ■ 
cess of the Earth System, I could not better do SO than by showing th 
Commode in constant daily use in a d e room, communicating only 
with two heated bedrooms, and causing no more annoyance to any 
member of the family than if it were a box bf dry ashes. The amount 
of attention required fe trifling. About once in four or five <Ia\ B tr. 
servant carries a hod of dry earth from a box in the w< Mi d 
pcrors it into the hopper, taking the full h« i out from un r th, „at 
and putting the empty one in its place. The full hod is tl 
out, its contents are emptied into the manure bin, and u i hunt' oul 



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" Let the subject be calmly and carefully discussed ; let us not be 
" carried away by great schemes and useless expenditure ; let us not 
"leave to posterity heavy taxes, with barren wastes and desolate cities; 
" but let us rather pay our own way, and leave our country fertile and 
-our towns pure, and I shall never regret that, however imperfectly 
" this subject has been brought before you, my earnest wish has been to 
" strike ' one more blow for life.' " 



Third paper : 

" In these papers, I have endeavored to show that the water-closet 
"system of disposing of human excreta can never be regarded as the 
" perfect system of the future. I have strongly urged the general adop- 
" tion of the Dry Closet as avoiding all the great evils which are appa- 
" rently inseparable from the use of water as a vehicle ; and pointed out 
" the use of charcoal, by which its application to towns and cities is 

il simple and easy. ... 

" Amongst other objections to the use of water as a carrier, I have 

" specified : 

" i. The enormous cost of the works required, in proportion to the 

small amount of noxious material to be removed. 

" 2. The large annual outlay required to keep the closets in order. 
" Experience in large cities has shown that, on this account, these*closets 
11 are quite unsuitable for the dwellings of the poor. 

" 3. The enormous amount of water employed (estimat t 365 
" times the weight of the excreta), whereas in many towns there is much 

" difficulty in obtaining it. 

"4. That it results in a lbterranean flood >i nil which 

"must flow somewhere; and wherever it flows it pollutes the region, 
"thus disseminating and distributing the evil. 

" 5. This material, worth about 30*. | ha lu< reduced 

« iy dilution to id. per ton, which it is imp sible, by any Liu n \ herni- 
al method, to extract with profit. 

"6. The large generation of noxious is in I ers, which 

"constantK 1 e into our strec and boufl 



TESTIMONY 



IN FAVOR Ofr* THE 



EARTH-CLOSET. 




UK Novi rv Iron Works in New York City occupy eight 
acre of ground, and employ about one thousand men. 
Their water-tax on water-closets was $1,500 per annum. To 
escape this, they prop< to take out their forty-eight water-closets 
and substitute the same number of Earth-Closets. After six months 1 
trial, with nine fixed Closets, they give the following opinion of their 
value : 

Office of The Novelty I no W ;s, 

New York, 1 c. 28, 1869. 
We have now given the Earth-Closet a thorough trial, and can 
say that it gives entire satisfaction. I do not hesitate to recommend it 
for manul ories, machine-shops, etc., as in c jry respect superior 
to the water-closet. 

W. P. TROWBRIDGE, Vice-President. 



Univi of Pennsyla . l Medical Department. 

Philadelphi in. 5, 1870. 
I have used the Earth-Closet ol Lined from you in my private 
room in the Univer-ity, sin t October, with entire satisfaction. 

I regard it not only as a great con nience, but as an equally great 
hygienic improvement, and, where water-closets cannot be constructed, 
as a valuable and complete substitute for them. 

FRANCIS G. SMITH, M.D. 



22 



Lake Forest, III., 

Dec. 24, 1869. 

We, the undersigned, having used your Commodes for several 
months, and having given them as severe a test as they need ever 
be subjected to, take pleasure in testifying to their satisfactory work- 
ing, and to the perfect deodorizing properties of fine Dry Earth. 
For use either in public buildings or private residences we consider 
them preferable to water-closets, as being entirely free from odor. 

E. P. WESTON, Principal Lake Forest Female Seminary. 

IRA W. ALLEN, Principal Lake Forest Academy. 

E. S. SKINNER, Secretary Lake Forest University. 

WILLIAM WARREN, Western Manager London, Liver- 
pool, and Globe Insurance Co. 



Fort Adams, Newport, R. I. 

Dec. 15, 1869? 

A number of Commodes and fixtures for Earth-Closets have been 
in use by the garrison of Fort Adams for several months past, and have 
given entire satisfaction, completely answering the purpose for which they 
are designed. The application of the Earth-Closet principle is of the 
highest importance as regards convenience, health, and economy. It 
does away with a great nuisance, and enables us to utilize a most 
valuable fertilizer at a trifling outlay. The Commodes can be placed 
wherever needed for convenience— a great advantage in cases of sick- 
ness and in hospitals. It is only necessary to follow the few simple 
directions for their use to appreciate their advantages. The Soldiers' 
Closet works perfectly. 

D. C. HOUSTON, 
Major U. S. Engineers, Brevet Col. U. S. A. 



Baltimore, Md., October 9, 1869. 

The Earth-Closet in my establishment is a complete su< '1 

it supplies a great want which, in this and thousands of other ca* 
it is difficult to meet in any other way. 

W. F. DAILY, Surcical Instrument I ^ « <" 

243 West Baltimore Street. 



2 3 

West Haven, Conn., No iq, 1869. 
A few months ago I purchased one of Rev. Henn \toul 
Patent I immodes or I rth-Closets, and although I I some doul 
at the t ' in r 1 to its deodorizing and d ties be 

as repr yet I find, by a most careful t t [ t has m 

,an J u ; r recommen* on r ha ha sicbu in my 

"ily, i I 1 1 Commode has been thoroughly t , and I would 
' now | with it for the price of thr if I ur. 

anothei Rcsj tmyjom 

CHAM)] 



u " I ^leisure h ng , r entir- 

'' if i I oi th h-< d i ■ 

I in fi> r pan 

q> -<ir u -w, if. my, have i 
its 

I v.\ & ki v i ,„ \ 

I. 



Mi ,w. Dl 

hi \ i 

w York D 

I 1 illy Kamin Btud I th nj 

and 1. iv , on 1 | urgt lt l« th 

b adopted in •■• 

d' i' thi« i, when thor< hly undi will nerally i 

1 to, even he 

JOI1 

v Bi i 



} t h i n ^ wl \ I *ms the health. >f 

tl >ple is a I r OJ interest to mt o t of r 

l H *< !> 1 th nmt th h-Cl< as m 

tent, the m t im] nt a r> . s 



24 



arrangement, sure in its operation, and beneficent in its results A care- 
fill examination of it is very certain to induce a tnal oi it, and the trial 
is equally certain to sustain all that is claimed lor it. Its merits need 
only to be known to procure for it the widest demand. Indeed, I 
think no commendation of it can be too strongly expressed. "Eureka 
should be its motto or trade-mark. There should be at least one 
Earth-Commode in every household, for its signal convenience and 
utility especially in cases of sickness.it bemg as easily removed from 
room to room as a chair or a table, and very neatly constructed as a 
piece of furniture. The one I purchase. 1 fulfils all my expectations^ 
P WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON. 

New York, December 22, 1869. 

If I had known before leaving England that these closets were 
procurable here, I should not have brought over the four I imported, 
as my sole object was to propagate here, by their introduction, know- 
ledge of an invention which so perfectly accomplishes its purpose that 
I felt sure, if once known, it must take. 

It may interest you to know that my attention was first attracted 
to the Earth-Closet system by finding at an English country-seat, where 
I was visi. g, Earth-Closets in use up-stairs and down, although the 
house, a handsome and well-appointed one, had water-closets on the 
same floors. The fact was so striking, and my host spoke so highly of 
the Earth-Closets, that I informed myself further about them, and 
decided to bring some out to this country. # 

I hope you Will meet with all success; for, whether regard had 
to economy, health, or decency, the Earth-Closet is, fool,- frtmtfs, 
beating the water-closet decidedly on the first points, Mid the 
every way offensive system which is in common use lure in the I ountry 

on all three. 

I am yours faithfully, 

HOWARD POTTER. 



Glenbrook 1 arm, West Havertord, Pa., 

October 20, 1869. 

It gives me pleasure to endorse, from my own expi rieoo both the 
pniuipk and the t 'radical operates of your EarllU t, Th 
Ipurcha ; from you in August lust I have had putupun "« 
porch immediately at ,„> ■„ e ,1.x,. and u>i,l.,n /. 
far from finding it in any way offensive or unpleasant, I • ' " * 



*5 

of the greatest improvement I have ad, I to my oust. W hing you suc- 
cess in your effoi to introduce the system ge rally, 

I re ain yours truly, 

JOHN" WHITNEY. 

Letter Dr. R. /'- ' ' ' 

M dH 

I bell i e i the E full n 

now it I lat I i k it . ft 

im] ai >'- 

// all l l '• 

I, 

by f ll1, 

\\ I iii! jury 

repa i v 

m. n 

It! til niy fell 

un 

EUART, 1 mi 












I i my unl\ 

bsok th Dry 

1 II 



II, WMumrm 

M. I W 1 

led t! W\ u,i ' 

th ! 

dnol 

rtiU 






i 












i 



tl 









l l 1 K.-,! 1 






s d urn 

to the broad ] t r 



26 



could have the same comfort. However secluded, the conventional 
privy is an abomination which, after a few years, we shall wonder was 
ever endured in the latter half of the nineteenth century. 

The Earth-Closet, supplied constantly with dry earth, is odorless 
and neat. It mav be in the house or in the wood-shed. It is well to have 
it where it may be entered unobserved, and so arranged that dry earth 
may be brought in and removed without attracting attention. 



Albanv, N. Y., Jan. 20, 1870. 

In reply to your request for my opinion of the Dry Earth Com- 
mode, I am able to speak most unequivocally in it£ favor. 

One has been in constant use in my house for several months, and 
is regarded as an indispensable convenience. Doubtless, arguments in 
favor of the water-closet system will be offered against the Dry Earth 
System, but simplicity, economy, and science must determine a verdict in 
favor of the latter. 

In the marvellous process of disintegration and renewal throughout 
the animal and vegetable worlds, a constant demand is created in one 
organization for those products which are eliminated from another 
organization as effete or useless. In the Dry Earth System, this fact 
is regarded, and the fertilizing constituents of the flesh and vegetables 
which we eat, after playing their part in the human economy, are con- 
veniently and inoffensively preserved for the use of the farmer and the 
gardener in those beautiful laboratories whose chemical products are the 
flower, the fruit, and the grain. Yours truly, 

C. A. ROBERTSON, M.D. 



Boston College, Dec. 21, 1869. 
From experiments which I had ordered as President of the College 
of the Holy Cross, Worcester, Mass., I was convinced that " Earth- 
Closets " and the " Earth System " were among the most useful discove- 
ries of the age. Your obedient servant, 

R. W. BRADY, SJ. 



Union College, Schenectady, N. Y., 

Dec. 29, 1869. 

. . . I am, as I expected to be, perfectly satisfied as to their 
value and efficacy. Respectfully, 

(Professor) MAURICE PERKINS. 



2 7 

Extract from the Report of the Massachusetts State Board of Health. 

EARTH CLOSETS. 

" This is one of the simplest and yet one of the most useful discove- 
ries of modern times. 

" Hereafter, if we are wise, we shall apply this simple means for the 
purification of vaults in every place where water is not used for that 
purpose, as in our great cities. 

" In the country it will be invaluable ; and whenever in private 
houses cholera or typhoid fever, or any contagious disease, may occur, 
there should this principle involved in the Earth-Closet be adopted." 



Westboro, Mass., Jan. 4, 1870. 
We have been using your Earth-Closets for the last three weeks, 
and have been much pleased with them. 

The principle upon which they act is simple, yet effective. The 
amount of dry earth or ashes scattered over the deposits seems to de- 
odorize it so that nothing offensive escapes. Should they continue to 
give satisfaction (and I see no reason why they should not), I shall re- 
commend a more extended use of them to the Board of Trustees. 
Your Commodes must be very convenient for family use and inval- 
uable for the sick-room. Yours very truly, 

BENJAMIN EVANS, 
Superintendent State Reform School. 



Newport, R. I., Jan. 7, 1870. 

Most willingly do I comply with your request to give you the 
result of my experience with the Earth-Closet. I am glad to contribute 
my mite towards making known its efficacy. 

The expositions and testimonials contained in your circulars so 
satisfied me of the reality of the discovery that dry clay is a deodorizer 
of feces, that some months ago, as you are aware, I set up in the base- 
ment of my house a closet with a self-acting apparatus, furnished by 

your Company. 

It were not enough to say that the experiment has been successful j 
the success has surpassed expectation. It proves that in dry, sifted clay 
there is a virtue by means of which the refuse of the human body is so 
taken hold of that it is reconverted into inoffensive earth. The reservoir 
is emptied into barrels which stand just outside of the door of the 
closet, and, although uncovered, there is from them no smell whatever. 
In these barrels there is not only the best fertilizer for the garden or 



farm, but one which can be handled with as much cleanliness as though 
the barrels were filled with sod and earth. It seems to me that this dis- 
covery may be turned into a manifold and wide benefaction through its 
perfect healthfulness, its cleanliness, and the saving of so much fertili- 
zing material. Truly yours, 

C. H. CALVERT. 



Connecticut State Hospital, 
New Haven, Dec. 22, 1869. 

The Earth-Closets and Commodes furnished by ou have been in 
use in this hospital for the past six months. They continue to work 
satisfactorily, and are daily demonstrating their usefulm . The d \ posit 
is completely deodorized, and is no more ojf- nve to the s : it or smell than 
an equal quantity of coal-ashes. 

Very truly yours, 

L. D. WILCOXSON, M.D. 



r w Hay D ., Jan. 3, 1870. 

We concur in the opinion of Dr. Wilcoxson, and V to ad'! 
that no greater convenience lias been added to the hospital during 01 
connection with the institution. 

\V. G. ALLING, Resided Physk ian. 

JOSEPH C< >] I' \\ Stewai 



R - •. • New J 1 1 ■ M'Ni 15, '>(). 
It 1 -leasure of saying that ti Muu) 1 I I m 

j L In i ry way | in 

ha ha/1 it in u , n I not be >UI it. W J 

res rior to the si 'water t tk h 

In a ad • : - ■ •" 1 in 

household, I think il il, a ly d aj 

pi of furniture. Respectfully 

|< N i . V; II J J I 



- Ml f 1 

ti el 'he f the I w a* 

in t '■* • or th 1st 1 > mom It lx It to 

olat eason, i ha subs ufeed for it rifl toe 

oal-a 



«., 



II- 



2 9 

Th^ r mraode has worked ell in all respec: and the ashes seem 
t0 Lc [ a dec arizes id . integrates de Th. 

"""» 11, andtl tents of l ait emptied ap- 

pear toe. , | Ica nc . on ; . m 

1 at, f h htm and 

'l ut lju! ief 611 i f «. !U 

mu n tly t 

^ l,i dui u it . 1 i , tij [ 

rill, v. 

app 'i ///.- of th i 

V 



(Pi i v. 



vT 



II M I )■ 

' ' • mraitl u-d thii 

d I it t i Jul I l j. 

th ku 

"I Ol i i fui I i 

l f th t I heard no 

wlii( li I itli I (hey d 

T 

I I >\\ M I) \ Will 






Tl I i . ! tlii 

b !1 ll)\ ti x 

1 ( 

1 

no < I 



1 1 
L h ave i < 

or: ig rth 

ret' th sani d t 






3° 



It is particularly valuable in this ah, and in all localities where 
similar conditions obtain with regard to drainage. 

JOHN H. RAUCH, Sanitary Su peri: ndent. 



Philadelphia, April 10, 1869. 
Having tested one of Monies Patent Earth-Closets (manui ur< 
by the Earth-Closet Company, of Hartford), with my pleats, in 
Pennsylvania Hospital in a manner which may fairly be saw 1 to hav< 
been a very severe one, I am confident that it not only v rran 11 
is claimed for it, but fulfils all the requirements of s sentence 

a hospital as well as for a sick-chamber, or for f am u 

ADDINELL HLWSON. M.J>. 



Professor Samuel W. Johns. of Yale College, m a 

as the leading Agricultural Chen f the count , v foE( * 

Sheffield Sen nth ic Sen >l of Yali »> 

HEAVEN, Co I I 

I have read t little puMcat in on 1 tl-< u 

interest, an-! am glad to 1 ithal rfi I tn 

bring • ;sub ti< all, to th rti« ' our p« I 

he use of dry rth 

ft ( more in $< ?<l ■ ftidi t) 

• itary a. mia 
The ,Ticultural h l ' ' "''■ 

importance. I rth-( 

>f our night- oil and urine, i 
< line lien' rid < hi ies 

I of Mi • in 

ture at 11 

room use, a 1 tn I the p 11 not ] 

i lii. yum 

\ ours 

S. 






\ iAM R ' - J' ' "' 

• : • A< 1. 



TV em of Tar 

length 

source < 

Early in August last a set of these closets was < 









1